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Ranong  is one of Thailand's southern provinces ( Changwat ), located on the west coast along the Andaman Sea. It has the fewest inhabitants of any Thai provinces. Neighbouring Ranong are Chumphon, Surat Thani and Phang Nga. To the west, it borders Kawthaung, Tanintharyi, Myanmar.

Ranong is located on the Kra Isthmus, a narrow strip of land that connects Thailand with the Malay Peninsula, on the west of the Phuket mountain range. It has a long coast on the Andaman Sea. The province is known for having the highest rainfall in Thailand, the rainy season there lasting for about eight months. Its annual rainfall in 1955 totaled 6,699.5 mm, compared to about 1,200 in central Thailand. Ranong is the least populated province; 80% of its area is covered by forests, and 67% is mountainous. In former years the major industry was tin mining, but most mines are now exhausted. White clay mining (for the production of porcelain) and fishing are now the main industries, along with rubber and cashew nuts.

The Ranong Biosphere Reserve in the north of Amphoe Kapoe, covering 303.09 km², was declared in 1997. It is the fourth biosphere reserve of Thailand, and the only one at the seacoast to protect the mangrove forests. Khlong Nakha Wildlife Sanctuary is in the south of the province. The name Ranong is a Thai corruption of Rundung,  a sparsely populated Malay principality once under the Malay Sultanate of Kedah. Rundung gradually submitted after repeated Thai invasions centuries ago.

The provincial seal shows a castle on top of a hill, to remember that King Chulalongkorn ( Rama V ) once visited Ranong and stayed at the Ratana Rangsan Castle on top of the Niveskiri Hill.

The provincial tree is the Banaba ( Lagerstroemia speciosa ), and the provincial flower is the orchid Dendrobium formosum.

Ranong is sub divided into five districts ( Amphoe ). These are further sub divided into 30 sub districts ( Tambon ) and 167 villages ( Muban ). Ranong itself is the only town ( thesaban mueang ), and there are five more sub district municipalities ( thesaban tambon ).

1).   Mueang Ranong   2).   La-un   3).   Kapoe   4).   Kra Buri   5).   Suk Samran