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Bueng Kan  is the 77th province ( Changwat ) of Thailand, established by the Act Establishing Changwat Bueng Kan, BE 2554 ( 2011 ) which came into force on and from March 23, 2011. The province, consisting of the districts ( Amphoe ) partitioned off Nong Khai Province, is situated in the northeastern region of the country, called Issan It is named after its central district, Mueang Bueng Kan.

The Province is located in the northeastern corner of Thailand. It borders from the south clockwise Nakhon Phanom, Sakon Nakhon, Udon Thani and Nong Khai Province. To the north and east it borders Laos, with the Mekong river forming the natural boundary. In Bung Khla district is the Phu Wua Wildlife Sanctuary, protecting a forest-covered hill area close to the Mekong river.

In 1994, Sumet Phromphanhao, member of the House of Representatives from Nong Khai Province, proposed a province of Bueng Kan to be established by disjoining Amphoe Bueng Kan, Amphoe Seka, Amphoe So Phisai, Amphoe Bung Khla, Amphoe Bueng Khong Long, Amphoe Pak Khat, Amphoe Phon Charoen and Amphoe Si Wilai of Nong Khai Province to be considered as a new province.

The new province, if created, would be 4,305-square-kilometre wide, with the population density about 390,000 inhabitants. At that time, the Ministry of Interior replied that creating a new province would load a heavy burden to the state budget and was contrary to the resolution of the Council of Ministers.

The proposal of creating Bueng Kan Province has been deserted for about 20 years, until 2010 when the Ministry of Interior renewed the project and made a proposal to the Council of Minister for having a "Bill Establishing Changwat Bueng Kan,  considered. In a popular poll at the same time, 98.83% of the inhabitants of Nong Khai province supported the proposal.

On August 3, 2010, the Council of Ministers resolved to present the bill to the National Assembly, citing the main reasons that: the proposal met with the criteria as to the number of districts and population and as to special characters of the proposed province, and that Nong Khai Province lies along the Mekong, making it difficult to maintain adequate security along the extensive border.