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Ancient Siam, Muang Boran, Samut Prakan, Thailand.

Samut Prakan Province, Page 84, Ancient Siam, The Wihan of Wat Pho Kao Ton, Sing Buri

The Wihan of Wat Chiang Khong, Chiang Rai. In the past, the assembly hall or wihan in Sukhothai and the Lanna Kingdoms was an important building in monastery. The wihan normally houses many important and sacred presiding Buddha images while the ubosot or ordination hall was used to hold religious ceremonies per formed by monks. Consequently, the larger wihan was constructed to serve as a public place where towns people came to pay homage to the Buddha images and perform religious rites. The smaller ubosot, often preserved for the monks religious performances, was normally made of wood and sometimes located in a pond. The ubosot located in a pond is usually called the Water Hall or Bot Nam, using the water as a boundary marker.

Muang Boran had brought the ubosot from Wat Chiang Khong in Chiang Rai (or the present Phayao Province). The ancient wooden hall like this can hardly be found today. This decrepit grand hall is in fact very strong and stable. The building is easily constructed but only with skilful hands. The upper parts of the posts of the wihan are supported by beams which are obviously strong that they help to prevent the whole structure from falling down, despite the lower part of the pillars being very decayed. The structure is roofed with the wooden tiles attached to the ranaeng by hooks of the tiles. Without using a single nail, the building is well-established, large, elegant and entrancing.

The Chedi Chet Yod, the seven Spired Pagoda, Chiang Mai.  Chedi Chet Yod is situated at Wat Photaram Mahawihan, a monastery known as Wat Chedi Chet Yod, in Chiang Mai Province. The main body of the chedi is a cave-like rectangular hall 10 meters wide and 22 meters deep. The front portal is a keystone arch facing the east. Inside the cave is a seated Buddha. Gap between the walls lead to covered passageways up to the roof of the hall. On the roof stand five chedi towers on square bases which are modelled after the great tower at Bodhi Gaya, India. The largest Stupa stands in the middle, while the four smaller towers stand on the corners. Two other round-shaped chedi, standing on bases decorated with stucco motifs, are made of laterite.

As history relates, the monument was initially built in the time of King Tilokarat, the King of Lanna

( 1442-1487 A.D. ). He sent an official, Muen Dam Phra Khot (Dam) to copy the Stupa at Bodhi Gaya in India, in 1455 A.D. The aesthetic significance can be seen from the stucco motifs of figures of celestial beings on the base walls, and of ornaments decorated on the door frames. They are truly cultural heritages of ancient Lanna that exist today.