Known as Nam Pia, this salty, pale brown liquid made from fermented small fish or
shrimp is widely used in cooking and as a condiment to provide a salty flavour.
A relative of the ginger root, galangal (Kha) imparts a delicate, unique flavour.
It is used fresh, dried or powdered.
Thai garlic (Krathiam) is smaller and sweeter than the western variety. It is used
both fresh and pickled in a large number of classic dishes.
In addition to galangal, two other varieties of ginger are used in Thai cooking,
the familiar one Khing and another Krachai, which has a milder flavour
Both the fruit and leaves of this shrub, Makrut Thai, lend a distinctive taste to
many Thai food especially curry pastes. There is no real substitute though.
This tall, grass-like plant, known as Takhrai, has small, bulbous roots and a lemony
flavour and aroma. The bud and base leaves are chopped and pounded for many dishes,
as well as, for a refreshing herbal tea.
Used principally as a garnish for fish and main dishes, lime (Manao in Thai) is also
freshly squeezed and mixed with water and sugar syrup as a beverage.
leaves of this plant (Saranae) are used for flavouring and for garnishing a number